بررسی ساز و کار استخراج ترکیبات غذایی و دارویی با کمک فراصوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه سمنان

2 دانشکده فیزیک -دانشگاه سمنان - سمنان - ایران

3 فیزیک-دانشکده فیزیک-دانشگاه سمنان-سمنان-ایران

چکیده

استخراج به کمک فراصوت می‌تواند به عنوان یک فناوری نسبتا نوین، سبز و غیرمخرب در استخراج ترکیبات غذایی و طبیعی از میوه­­ها و سبزی­ها، گیاهان و ادویه­ها، دانه­های روغنی و میکروارگانیسم­ها به‌کار گرفته شود. در این مقاله سازوکار حاکم بر استخراج با کمک فراصوت مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. فراصوت با استفاده از سازوکارهای ریزکردن، فرسایش، ایجاد شکاف، تغییر شکل غشاء سلول، ایجاد نیروی برشی و ایجاد دمای بالا می­تواند بر روی فرایند استخراج تأثیر بگذارد. در واقع اساس تمام این سازوکارها ورود امواج صوتی در داخل حلال، نوسانات سیال، ایجاد حباب، رمبش[i] حباب و ایجاد فشار و حرارت است. شوک ناشی از رمبش حباب می­تواند باعث برخورد ذرات جامد و ریز شدن آنها و یا ایجاد شکاف در غشا سلولی و ایجاد میکرو جریان شود. با توجه به مطالب فوق استخراج با کمک فراصوت دارای مزایایی مثل افزایش جرم منتقل شده، نفوذ بهتر حلال، نیاز کمتر به حلال، کاهش خطرات شیمیایی و فیزیکی، سازگاری با محیط زیست، استخراج در دمای پایین، زمان استخراج کمتر و بازده بالاتر، کیفیت استخراج بالاتر، نیاز به انرژی کمتر و عدم نیاز به آماده­سازی نمونه است. همچنین بررسی­ها نشان می­دهد که موفقیت استخراج با کمک فراصوت به مشخصه­های امواج فراصوت به‌کار رفته (مثل فرکانس، شدت، چرخه­کاری و تناوبی یا پیوسته بودن امواج)، مشخصه­های محلول (مثل ویسکوزیته و تنش سطحی)، خصوصیات نمونه (مثل رطوبت نمونه و اندازه ذرات)، شرایط محیطی (مثل دما و فشار) و زمان استخراج بستگی دارد. این کمیت­ها برای استخراج هر ترکیب خاص باید با استفاده از روش پاسخ سطحی به دقت بهینه­سازی شوند.



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کلیدواژه‌ها

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