بررسی سمت و سوی کاربرد ارتعاشات توان بالای فراصوتی در فرآیندهای جوشکاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 ساخت و تولید، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران، ایران

2 گروه ساخت و تولید، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه علم و صنعت، تهران، ایران

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر

4 گروه طراحی صنعتی، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه الزهراء، تهران، ایران

چکیده

جوشکاری فراصوتی به‌عنوان یک فناوری نو در بسیاری از صنایع جایگزین روش‌های معمول اتصال نظیر جوشکاری، بریزینگ[i]، دوخت و ... شده است. در این فناوری انرژی فراصوتی توسط ترانسدیوسر[ii] (مبدل) فراصوتی تولید و از طریق بوستر[iii] و هورن[iv] به ناحیه اتصال منتقل ‌می‌شود. انرژی فراصوتی در ناحیه اتصال منتشر و جذب شده و ایجاد حرارت ‌می‌نماید. اعمال هم‌زمان نیرو / فشار و ایجاد حرارت موجب اتصال قطعات درگیر با یکدیگر ‌می‌گردد. در این فرایند پارامترهای متعدد نظیر توان، فرکانس، نیرو / فشار، زمان، جنس و شکل مواد و ... بر خصوصیات اتصال و نمونه حاصل تأثیرگذار هستند. در این مقاله با هدف آشنایی محققان با اصول و کاربردهای پیرامون این فناوری، به مرور تحقیقات علمی و صنعتی در زمینه جوشکاری فراصوتی پرداخته شده است. با توجه به کاربرد عمده و مکانیزم‌های متفاوت تأثیرگذار، این مقاله به دو بخش اصلی جوشکاری فلزات و پلاستیک‌ها تقسیم‌بندی شده است. با توجه به اهمیت و کاربرد موضوع، اصول و روش‌های اعمال ارتعاشات فراصوتی، مکانیزم‌های متفاوت تأثیرگذاری فراصوت، پارامترهای فرایند اتصال فراصوتی و کاربردهای مهم این فناوری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در نهایت دورنمایی از کاربرد ارتعاشات توان بالای فراصوتی در فناوری‌های نوین ساخت و اتصال در آینده صنعت ارائه شده است.
 
[i]. Brazing
[ii]. Transducer
[iii]. Booster
[iv]. Horn

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Roadmap for Application of High Power Ultrasonic in Plastic and Metal Welding

نویسنده [English]

  • rezvan Abedini 2
2 Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Ultrasonic welding as a new technology in many industries has replaced the usual methods of joining such as welding, brazing, sewing and etc. In this technology, ultrasonic energy is generated by the ultrasonic transducer and transmitted to the joining area through the booster and horn. Ultrasonic energy is dissipated and absorbed in the joining area and generates heat. Simultaneous application of static force / pressure and heat causes the involved parts to join with each other. In this process, various parameters such as power, frequency, static force / pressure, time, material and shape of parts and etc affect the joining properties and the resulting sample. In this paper, with the aim of acquainting researchers with the principles and applications of this technology, scientific and industrial research in the field of ultrasonic welding has been reviewed. Due to the major application and different effective mechanisms, this paper is divided into two main parts of metal welding and plastic welding. Considering the importance and application of the subject, the principles and methods of applying ultrasonic vibrations, different mechanisms of ultrasonic, the parameters of the ultrasonic welding process and the important applications of this technology have been studied. Finally, a perspective on the application of high power ultrasonic vibrations in new manufacturing and joining technologies in the future of the industry is presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ultrasonic Welding
  • Process parameters
  • Metal Welding
  • Plastic Welding
  • Mechanical Vibrations
[1] Handbook, A. S. M. "Welding, brazing and soldering", 1993, pp.297-324.
[2] Gallego-Juárez, Juan A., and Karl F. Graff, eds. “Power ultrasonics: applications of high-intensity ultrasound”, Elsevier, 2014.
[3] Fartashvand, Vahid, Amir Abdullah, and Seyed Ali Sadough Vanini, "Effects of high power ultrasonic vibration on the cold compaction of titanium", Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 2017, Vol.36, pp.155-161.
[4] Abedini, Rezvan, Amir Abdullah, and Yunes Alizadeh, "Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction", Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 2017, Vol.38, pp.704-710.
[5] Abdullah, Amir, Mohammad Sotoodezadeh, Rezvan Abedini, and Vahid Fartashvand, "Experimental study on ultrasonic use in dry creep-feed up-grinding of aluminum 7075 and Steel X210Cr12", International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 2013, Vol.14, no.2, pp.191-198.
[6] Abedini, Rezvan, Amir Abdullah, Yunes Alizadeh, and Vahid Fartashvand, "A Roadmap for application of high power ultrasonic vibrations in metal forming", Modares Mechanical Engineering, 2017, Vol.16, no.10, pp.323-334.
[7] Shakouri, Ehsan, Mohammad Hossein Sadeghi, Mehdi Maerefat, Mohammad Reza Karafi, and Mehdi Memarpour, "Experimental and analytical investigation of thrust force in ultrasonic assisted drilling of bone", Modares Mechanical Engineering, 2014, Vol.14, no.6, pp.194-200.
[8] Abdullah, Amir, Massoud Malaki, and Ahmad Eskandari, "Strength enhancement of the welded structures by ultrasonic peening", Materials & Design, 2012, Vol.38, pp.7-18.
[9] Ghaedi, M., S. Hajjati, Z. Mahmudi, I. Tyagi, Shilpi Agarwal, A. Maity, and V. K. Gupta, "Modeling of competitive ultrasonic assisted removal of the dyes–Methylene blue and Safranin-O using Fe3O4 nanoparticles", Chemical Engineering Journal, 2015, Vol.268, pp.28-37.
[10] Harthoorn, Johannes Leendert, "Ultrasonic metal welding", 1978.
[11] Frederick, J. R., "Ultrasonic Engineering, New York”, 1965, p.185.
[12] Abdullah, Amir, Mohsen Shahini, and Abbas Pak, "An approach to design a high power piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer", Journal of Electroceramics, 2009, Vol.22, no.4, pp.369-382.
[13] Abdullah, Amir, and Abbas Pak, "Correct prediction of the vibration behavior of a high power ultrasonic transducer by FEM simulation", the international journal of advanced manufacturing technology, 2008, Vol.39, no.1-2, pp.21-28.
[14] Rani, M. Roopa, K. Prakasan, and R. Rudramoorthy, "Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding", Ultrasonics, 2015, Vol.55, pp.123-132.
[15] Rani, M. Roopa, and R. Rudramoorthy, "Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding", Ultrasonics, 2013, Vol.53, no.3, pp.763-772.
[16] Kumar, S., C. S. Wu, G. K. Padhy, and W. Ding, "Application of ultrasonic vibrations in welding and metal processing: a status review", Journal of manufacturing processes, 2017, Vol.26, pp.295-322.
[17] Bhudolia, Somen K., Goram Gohel, Kah Fai Leong, and Aminul Islam, "Advances in ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic composites: A review", Materials, 2020, Vol.13, no.6, p.1284.
[18] De Vries, Edgar, “Mechanics and mechanisms of ultrasonic metal welding”, The Ohio State University, 2004.
[19] de Vries, E. "Development of ultrasonic welding process for stamped 6000 series Aluminum." PhD diss., Diploma Thesis, University of Applied Science, Emden, 2000.
[20] Bakavos, D., and P. B. Prangnell, "Mechanisms of joint and microstructure formation in high power ultrasonic spot welding 6111 aluminium automotive sheet", Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2010, Vol.527, no.23, pp.6320-6334.
[21] Cheng, Xudong, and Xiaochun Li, "Investigation of heat generation in ultrasonic metal welding using micro sensor arrays", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2007, Vol.17, no.2, p.273.
[22] Watanabe, Takehiko, Hajime Itoh, A. Yanagisawa, and Makoto Hiraishi, "Ultrasonic welding of heat-treatable aluminium alloy A6061 sheet", Welding International, 2009, Vol.23, no.9, pp.633-639.
[23] Dhara, Sisir, and Abhishek Das,"Impact of ultrasonic welding on multi-layered Al–Cu joint for electric vehicle battery applications: A layer-wise microstructural analysis", Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2020, Vol.791, pp.139795.
[24] Li, Chunjie, Sansan Ao, J. P. Oliveira, Mingpeng Cheng, Zhi Zeng, Huijie Cui, and Zhen Luo, "Ultrasonic spot welded NiTi joints using an aluminum interlayer: microstructure and mechanical behavior", Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 2020, Vol.56, pp.1201-1210.
[25] Troughton, Michael J., “Handbook of plastics joining: a practical guide”, William Andrew, 2008.
[26] Villegas, Irene Fernandez, "Strength development versus process data in ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic composites with flat energy directors and its application to the definition of optimum processing parameters", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2014, Vol.65, pp.27-37.
[27] Villegas, Irene Fernandez, and Harald EN Bersee, "Ultrasonic welding of advanced thermoplastic composites: An investigation on energy‐directing surfaces", Advances in Polymer Technology, 2010, Vol.29, no.2, pp.112-121.
[28] Aliosio, C. J., D. G. Wahl, and E. E. Whetsel, "A simplified thermoviscoelastic analysis of ultrasonic bonding", SPE Technical papers, 1972, Vol.18, no.5, pp.28-32.
[29] Benatar, Avraham, and Timothy G. Gutowski, "Ultrasonic welding of PEEK graphite APC‐2 composites", Polymer Engineering & Science, 1989, Vol.29, no.23, pp.1705-1721.
[30] Benatar, Avraham, and Timothy G. Gutowski, "Method for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites", SAMPE Q, ; (United States), 1986, Vol.18, no.1.
[31] Miodrag Prokic, “Piezoelectric Converters Modelling and Characterization", MPI ultrasonics, 2004.
[32] B. U. Corporation, Ed., “Amplitude Regulation.” U.S.A., 2011,  https://fliphtml5.com/xpbg/jghn/basic .
[33]      B. U. Corporation, Ed., “Amplitude ProfilingTM and Weld Strength.” U.S.A., 2012, https://studylib.net/doc/18252668/amplitude-profiling---emerson-industrial-automation .
[35] Stokes, Vijay K., "Joining methods for plastics and plastic composites: an overview", Polymer Engineering & Science, 1989, Vol.29, no.19, pp.1310-1324.
[36] Andrew, William, "Handbook of Plastics Joining", Plastics Design Library, 1997.
[37] Mariam, Hasetetsion G., J. Rick Baer, David J. Scholl, Ronald P. Cooper, Daniel E. Wilkosz, Anthony J. Grima, and Larry V. Reatherford, "Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum 6111: Reliability and Maintainability Study of Robot Mounted C-Gun Welding System", In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2007, Vol.42975, pp.689-697.
[38] Hetrick, E. T., J. R. Baer, W. Zhu, L. V. Reatherford, A. J. Grima, D. J. Scholl, D. E. Wilkosz, S. Fatima, and S. M. Ward, "Ultrasonic metal welding process robustness in aluminum automotive body construction applications", Weld. J., 2009, Vol.88, no.7, pp.149-158.
[40] Matheny, M., "Ultrasonic metal welding foils to tabs for lithium-ion battery cells", Cooperative Research Program, Summary Report SR-1301, August 2012.
[41] Wu, Chung-Yuan, Avraham Benatar, and Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, "Comparison of ultrasonic welding and vibration welding of thermoplastic polyolefin", welding in the World, 2012, Vol.56, no.1, pp.69-75.
[42] Mörschner, Rolf, and Udo Wagenbach, "Device for the ultrasonic sealing and separation of a pipe section", U.S. Patent 7,128,807, issued October 31, 2006.
[43] Wu, Chung-Yuan, Avraham Benatar, and Abbass Mokhtarzadeh, "Comparison of ultrasonic welding and vibration welding of thermoplastic polyolefin", welding in the World, 2012, Vol.56, no.1, pp.69-75.